RSS    

 :

Mg2+ + X- + H2O

Mg(OH)X , , (HCl, H2SO4), .

, , , .

H2C -CH2 + RMgX RCH2CH2HMgX RCH2CH2OH

H2O

O + 2

, - , - s- .

.

.

350-400 C , 21,27

+ 22 3

, ().

400 200 /2 , .

.

4.          (, , -, -) . ( , R = H):

H2O

R─CH=CH2 + H2SO4 R─CH─CH3 RCHCH3 + H2SO4

| |

OSO3H OH

R R

| H+ |

C=CH2 + H2O C─CH3

| / |

R R OH

, ó , ( ). +.

, , , (, , , .), :

6126 225 + 22

; , - , .

1. O-H

. - . : > > . , , , , , :

2ROH + 2Na 2RONa + H2

( : 3Na, 25Na). ( , ..). .

, , . , . , Mg, Zn, Cd, Al , , . :

2CH3OH + Zn (CH3)2 (CH3O)2Zn + 2CH4

. - , , :

CH3ONa +H2O CH3OH + NaOH

:

ROH + NaOH RONa + H2O

, , :

H Br-

½

ROH + HBr R¾O+¾H

( ). , :

HO RO

½ ½

ROH + SO2 SO2 + H2O

½ ½

HO HO

HO RO

½ ½

2ROH + SO2 SO2 + 2H2O

½ ½

HO RO

O O ** OH H¾O+¾H

║ H+ ║ ROH ½ ½ -H2O

R¾C¾OH R¾C+¾OH ** R¾C¾OH R¾C¾OH R¾C+¾OH

½ ½ ½

-ࠠ R-O+¾H R-O R-O

O

R¾C¾OR

, . ( H2SO4) . . .

:

NaOH + HNO3 = NaNO3 + H2O

, , , , , :

+ + - → 2

. , ( ), ; ( , , ) . , 18. , RCOOH , 218.

. :

ROH + ClN=O → RO─N=O + HCl

3ROH + PCl3 → (RO)3P + 3HCl

O O

║ ║

ROH + Cl─C─CH3 → RO─C─CH3 + HCl

O O

║ ║

ROH + Cl─C─Cl → RO─C─CCl + HCl

2. ¾O .

 

.

:

3(CH3)3COH + PBr3 → 3(CH3)3CBr + P(OH)3

PBr3 PI3 :

3C2H5OH + PBr3 → 3C2H5Br + P(OH)3

.

SN2, SN1. :


Br-

RCH2OH + H+ → R¾CH2 ¾O+¾O → RCH2Br + H2O SN2

½

H

R R -H2O R Br- R

R¾C¾OH + H+ → R¾C¾O+¾H R¾C+ → R¾C¾Br SN1

R R ½ R R

H

( + ZnCl2 ). : >>.

3. OH , .

 

. ( ) ~375 :

Al2O3

3─2͠ 2=2 + 2

.

. , , .

, , :

Cu

RCH2OH → R−C−H + H2

200-300 C ║

O

:

R

\ Cu

CHOH → R−C−R + H2

/ 200-300 C ║

R O

. : KMnO4, K2Cr2O7 H2SO4. , :

RCH2OH + [O] → R─C─H + H2O

O

R

\

CHOH + [O] → R−C−R + H2O

/ ║

R O

:

OH O

½ [O] ║

CH3CHCH3 → CH3CCH3

: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7


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